Describe how translation produces the primary structure of a protein. Protein Structure There are four levels of protein structure. The primary structure is determined by the order of amino acids in the chain. The secondary structure is determined by the hydrogen bonds that form between the atoms making up the backbone of the polypeptide. The tertiary structure is determined by interactions between R groups of the amino acids. Finally, quaternary structure is formed when multiple proteins join together to form a complex.
Which of the following is NOT true of ribosomes?
a. Each ribosome has an amino acyl site and a peptidyl site.
b. Ribosomes stabilize and move various members of the protein synthesis apparatus within the cytoplasm.
c. Ribosomes act as carrier molecules, transferring specific amino acids to an amino acid chain.
d. Ribosomes catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to make a polypeptide chain.
More than one ribosome can translate a specific mRNA strand simultaneously. This means that the whole structure looks like amino acid bound with multiple ribosomes. This specific structure is known as a polyribosome or polysome. This is why more than one single strand of the peptide is produced from one mRNA molecule, which ensures faster expression of a gene when required.
Answer to question 1
62) cell division is the process by which a cell divides to 2 daughter cells. asexual reproduction involves mitosis, and sexual reproduction involves meiosis ( mitosis and meiosis are different forms of cell division, daughter cells produced via mitosis have a same genetic composition as the parent cell and daughter cells produced via meiosis are haploid and each daughter cells have different genetic compositions). The prokaryotic cell divides by binary fission and eukaryotes go through the cell cycle and divide. In single-celled cells, the entire organism is reproduced via cell division, so the answer is D) cell division is common in eukaryotes and rare in prokaryotes.
63) prokaryotes are single-celled organisms, they lack membrane-bound organelles and they are much simpler than the eukaryotic organisms, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles, the eukaryotes have multiple linear chromosomes and prokaryotes have single circular chromosomes so the answer is A) prokaryotic chromosomes are more complex than those of eukaryotes.
Answer to question 2
Answer : 31 for create genetic diversity cell division is necessary for development so it’s false statement
Cell division produces the entrie new entity so it’s a correct option
Cell division is basic of asexual reproduction so it’s false statement.
Answer: 32 Prior to mitosis , each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell consists of a pair of identical structur called sister chromatids.
Answer : 34 tge genetic material is duplicate during S phase
answer :33 33. Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in G1, S and G2 interphase
So interphase is correct option.
Answer to question 3
Answer and Explanation: The primary structure of a protein is determined by the order of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. During translation, a ribosome moves along an mRNA strand. Each group of three bases, called a codon, is matched with a tRNA molecule that has a complementary anticodon. These tRNA molecules carry amino acids, and when the anticodon of a tRNA molecule matches with a codon on the mRNA strand, the ribosome catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the amino acid carried by the tRNA molecule and the previous amino acid in the chain. Through this method, the order of amino acids in the protein is established.
Answer to question 4
Answer and Explanation: The character which is NOT true of ribosomes is c. Ribosomes act as carrier molecules, transferring specific amino acids to an amino acid chain. The ribosomes are responsible for helping in the process of translation. Ribosome acts as the organelle where the amino acyl tRNA molecules can bind. The amino acyl tRNA are tRNA molecules bound to specific amino acids. Therefore the tRNA molecules act as carriers for amino acids. They transfer the amino acids to form a peptide structure by transferring amino acid to the peptide. A peptide is a chain of amino acids which is an end product of translation. Ribosome just helps in providing the site for the formation of the peptide so that tRNA can bind in the right location.