Reuben Jennings is a life insurance salesman. He has changed jobs five times in the last fifteen years and is always looking for a good job opportunity. He has many friends who are agents with competing firms, and every so often they get together over lunch to discuss opportunities in their respective firms. This is an example of a(n) _ channel. a. downward b. informal c. horizontal d. formal Competing Firms: Competing firms are involved in market competition with other firms. Their motive is to attract customers by offering competitive prices for products. Their operations revolve around their stable position and growth in the market.
What is an African philosophy of history? African Philosophy: African philosophy plays a significant part in providing insight into the human experience dimension created through African metaphysical beliefs. African philosophy helps educate students to look for meanings that correlate with their fields of interest.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of oral history? Oral history: Oral history collects and studies historical information about families, individuals, everyday life, or significant events through recorded interviews (videotapes, transcription, or audiotapes). Oral history happens between a well-informed interviewer and an experienced personal narrator on historically significant events, intending to add to the historical data.
Answer to question 1
Answer to question 2
Answer and Explanation: The correct answer is (b.) informal Reuben Jennings meets his friends over lunch, and they share their views on various opportunities. Different people come from different competitive firms, so they discuss different opportunities; this shows an informal communication channel. An informal channel of communication derives from individuals’ social and personal needs that lead to unofficially sharing information. This channel makes the flow of information easy to be transferred from one person to another. Friends communicate with each other to help better career growth by talking about different opportunities in their respective firms. Reasons for incorrect options: Option (a.) is incorrect because the downward channel supports information transfer from a higher level to a lower level. Option (c.) is incorrect because the horizontal channel involves formal discussions among employees working at the same level in the organization. Option (d.) is incorrect because formal communication does not involve social interactions among individuals who support their personal or social needs.
Answer to question 3
Answer and Explanation: African philosophy of history refers to the order of mutual and individual living in both social and natural worlds. History contains radical and recurrent challenges that human beings undergo to survive and flourish. The history of African philosophy history is very long and rich and has raised debates since the twentieth century on its existence and nature due to its varying nature.
Answer to question 4
Answer and Explanation: Oral history has various associated advantages and disadvantages and which include; Advantages: The main advantage of oral history is that it accounts for firsthand or direct experience and contains unfiltered responses to the questions presented. Oral history teaches about what has stayed and changed over time. Oral history captures the use of language, an everyday perspective of a person, contemporary mannerisms, and unique life experiences. Oral history recompenses the damage experienced in the digital age. From oral history, historians can learn varieties of information. Oral history boosts the broad range of historical resources of historians. Disadvantages: One of the major demerits of oral history is recalling a false memory by an individual, especially when an event happened a long time ago, like thirty years, it is challenging to remember exact details of the event. It lacks a clear image during data recollection as one person can only do it as it is hard to corroborate the events described.