A yellow dye, FD&C yellow 3, is used in some candy coatings. A 2.4 x10^-5 M solution of this dye has an absorbance of 0.418 at its max.
A) Calculate the molar absorptivity of the dye at this wavelength, assuming a sample cell with 1.0 cm pathlength.
B) The yellow dye from one piece of candy is completely extracted into 10.00 mL of water and diluted to 100.00 mL with water. The absorbance of the diluted solution is 0.556 at its max. Calculate the concentration of the dye in the diluted solution.
C) Calculate the number of grams of this dye in the coating of one piece of candy (MM of dye=271 g/mol)
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A) A=ecl A = absorbance, e = molar absorptivity, l = path length, c = concentration of solution
e= A/cl = 0.418 / ( 1cm x 2.4E-5 M) = 17416.7 M-1 cm-1
B) Using e from part A and c = A/el
c = 0.556 / (1cm x 17416.7 M-1 cm-1) = 3.2×10^-5 M
C) we need to use the fact that a 100.mL solution of the dye has a concentration of 3.2×10^-5 M to work out the number of moles present in the coating of one piece of candy.
So n=cxv/1000 = 3.2×10^-5 M x 100/1000 = 3.2×10^-6 mol
n= m/M so m = nM = 3.2×10^-6 mol x 271 g/mol = 8.7×10^-4 g of yellow dye per piece of candy
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What is chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of matter and its changes in different physical and chemical states. Although many people confuse chemistry with alchemy, which is concerned with the transmutation of base metals into gold and other magical endeavors.
Chemistry is a very broad science and covers many aspects of matter. Some general areas where chemistry is applied are:
- chemical industry,
How chemistry affects lives daily?
One of the many effects of chemistry that greatly affect people’s lives is in agriculture. Through advances in chemistry, we are able to produce better yields with less effort which has allowed a lot of places to export food.
Thanks to chemistry and chemical engineering, the world is seeing an increase in healthier foods while improving agricultural productivity.
Chemistry is also used to purify water. One example of this is reverse osmosis, where water is forced through a semipermeable membrane with pores that are too small for impurities to pass through. Chemically treating the water as it passes through will remove contaminants so the purified water on the other side is very pure.
Another use of chemistry in people’s’ daily lives is in medicine and healthcare. As an example, antiseptics can be considered a form of chemical treatment which have been shown to greatly reduce mortality rates in post-operative environments.
Different forms of anesthesia such as nitrous oxide (an inhaled gas) have allowed many more people to experience surgery than would otherwise be possible without putting them at risk.
Even something as simple as antacids used for heartburn can be considered a form of medicine due to their pharmacological effects.
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College chemistry is a broad subject of study that can be divided into three main branches of chemistry which are: Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, and Physical chemistry which has been highlighted below.
Inorganic Chemistry: Inorganic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that involves the study and principles behind chemical processes where all or most of the reactants are inorganic compounds, such as water and gases.
Organic Chemistry: Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical study and reactions of organic compounds, which are based on carbon compounds such as hydrocarbons (petroleum), fats, waxes and oils in organisms.
Physical Chemistry: Physical chemistry is the study of chemical processes in systems that involve heat, pressure, or flow and is a messy (think air) subset of chemistry.
Physical chemists study things like physical properties (such as particle size), structures and geometries, thermodynamics, phase changes, spectroscopy and electrochemistry. Much of the work involves figuring out how to model chemical phenomena using mathematics, so signal scientists often rely on physical chemists’ expertise.
Typical tasks might range from matching up specific chemicals by their spectral patterns to examining detailed models of molecular interactions in order to create new materials or predict substances’ reaction rates.
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The following are some of the critical topics in Chemistry our homework help service may come in handy:
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- Atomic Structure – This study involves understanding the composition of atoms, which is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
- Electrochemistry – Primarily covers redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions. Such reactions may be harnessed to produce electrodes and batteries because they produce ions that facilitate the flow of electricity. Electrochemistry decides whether a reaction will occur and in which direction electrons will flow.
- Units and Measurements – Chemistry being a subject that relies on experimentation, it often involves taking measurements and performing calculations based on those measurements. You must be familiar with the units of measurements and the various ways of converting between them.
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Other fields of chemistry covered include:
Here are other branches of chemistry that you may encounter while studying chemistry in college or graduate school. Remember that we can do chemistry homework on any branch that is listed here or not. Post your question to get a quote to get help from chemistry tutors.
Analytical chemistry is the branch of analytical science and a subject that usually offers the broadest degree program for students with a general educational background in science.
Analytical chemists study how substances react, ranging from individual molecules to large-scale industrial processes, to gain an understanding of their composition and properties. Some analytical chemists specialize in physical methods like chromatography (separating or mixing compounds) while others focus more on chemical methods like spectroscopy (intensively looking at light emissions).
Biochemistry is the study of life or living organisms at the molecular level. It focuses on chemistry’s four central principles –energy, temperature, pressure, and matter—in relation to living systems. Biochemistry is a strong foundation for many other related fields such as biotechnology, pharmacology, and toxicology.
Biochemistry studies the interactions between organic molecules and their roles in biological processes. Biochemistry overlaps with chemical biology and molecular biology which also study these areas but from the perspective of chemistry or molecular biology respectively.
Electrochemistry is the study of chemical reactions involving electricity. For example, electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is a type of electrochemical reaction that produces light in an analytical instrument.
Nuclear chemistry deals with selective identification and the isolation or concentration of radioactive substances. Nuclear chemists use many techniques such as alpha measurements and Beta-gamma techniques to perform their work.
Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemical science concerned with the research and development of medicines.
It is among the oldest branches of applied chemistry, dating back to antiquity, but in its modern form it has come to encompass many new sciences as well. The discovery and synthesis of various chemical compounds during an empirical search for therapeutic agents was recorded in written history for several millennia, yet very few pharmacologically active natural products were known prior to 1950 due to crude analytic capabilities during the 18th through 20th centuries. In contrast, there exists a plethora of drugs created solely by chemical modification at high synthesis first developed after World War II.
Pharmaceutical chemists are interested in developing topical drugs (a drug applied on a client’s skin) or parenteral drugs (a drug delivered through the skin into the bloodstream).
Polymer chemistry is the study of polymers and their properties. These are large molecules that consist of many individual molecules, called monomers
Polymers have endless applications in every aspect of our everyday lives including plastics, clothing, diapers, food wraps and packaging.
Quantum chemistry is concerned with the calculations of physical reactions that happen at very small scales.
This type of chemistry incorporates quantum mechanics and, specifically, wave functions to better predict chemical reaction rates than classical physics by using Schrödinger equation.
Quantum chemists study topics such as electron tunnelling, spin, atomic orbitals and molecular symmetry energies.
The types of molecules that they work with range from individual molecules to large-scale industrial processes and can be found in any area of science including drug discovery.
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Acids, bases and salts
Acids which taste sour are called as sour tasting acids i.e., hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Bases have bitter taste like alkalis that are used for washing clothes (“laundry detergent”). Bases like sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) react with acids to produce salt water plus some heat (exothermic) i.e., sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen sulphate and potassium chloride.
Bases and acids react with each other to produce salt water + heat or they combine partially producing salts . For e.g., HCl reacts with NaOH to produce NaCl + H2O & heat. Thus, “salt” is actually a chemical combination of an acid and a base.
Different types of salts have different formulas: depending on the acids & bases which are combined in it! That’s why we call them “different kinds of salts”!
Metals and non-metals:
Metals:- Metals are dense elements having shiny luster when polished like gold, silver, copper etc. Some of them (e.g., potassium, calcium) are used in batteries to generate electricity (electrical energy).
Non-metals:- generally have dull luster, poor conductivity and very low melting point like water, carbon or plastics.
Elements :- These are substances which cannot be broken down into other chemical compounds called as “elementary substances”.
There are more than 100 elements; 92 of them occur naturally on earth! The rest are made artificially in laboratories!
Compounds / Mixtures:
Compound is a material which has two or more different kinds of elements chemically combined together. We can separate those elements by physical methods i.e., distillation or by chemical methods i.e., electrolysis etc.
Mixtures are basically two or more different substances mixed together.
Ionic compounds / ionic bonds:
Some of the elements form only one kind of molecule called as anion, which attracts electrons to itself forming a negative ion and thus produces positive ions (cations). Such compounds where anions & cations exist in equal numbers are called “ionic compounds”, because they have small particles carrying either a positive charge (cation) or a negative charge (anion) known as ions ! Some examples of such ionic compounds are NaCl that is made up of sodium cation and chloride anion; CaF2 is made up calcium cation and fluorine anion; etc. Ionic compounds have high melting points and are generally hard substances.
In ionic compounds, cation steals an electron from anion to become positive & anion becomes negative due to which the attraction between both the ions increases immensely! This is called as “ionic bond”. In other words, ionic bonds form when a molecule acquires a net electrical charge when two oppositely charged ions attract each other by electrostatic interaction via Coulomb’s law.
Covalent compounds / covalent bonds:
Some elements exist as diatomic molecules (two atoms bonded together) like O2, N2, H2 or F2 for e.g., in case of oxygen (O2), oxygen molecule consists of two oxygen atoms bonded together. These types of elements are called as “non-metals” ! Covalent compounds generally have lower melting points and high boiling point compared to ionic bonds . In covalent compounds, sharing of electrons occurs between the atoms i.e., due to attraction between them which is known as “covalent bonding”. In other words, covalent bonds form when a molecule acquires a net electrical charge when two non-polar (having no polarity) molecules attract each other by averaging the effect of equal positive & negative charges that cancel each other out! This is called as line bond.
According to Dalton’s atomic theory , all matter is composed of tiny building blocks called atoms ! Thus, according to this theory all compounds too are made up of these tiny building blocks called atoms . The arrangement of the atoms (called as molecular structure) in a compound is very important for its properties.
For e.g., In case of water H2O, hydrogen atoms attract oxygen atom & thereby forms a covalent bond between them. This attraction increases with the increase in distance between two atoms because it’s an electrically charged particle! So, they have low boiling point and high melting point compared to ions (it has higher density also). But at room temperature, there is enough kinetic energy which makes them move faster & thus become gaseous (in gaseous form i.e., in form of steam, water is present as very tiny particles). This means that molecular structure changes with the change in temperature and pressure !
Phase / States of matter:
A phase is a set of states of matter which can’t be changed into each other. In other words, different phases have different states & properties which are independent of each other . For e.g., solid, liquid or gaseous states are called as “phases”. There can be three possible phases for any substance at any given condition i.e., solid(s), liquid(l) and gas (g).
- Solid: Solid state has higher melting point than liquid & gaseous states have higher boiling point than both ice & liquids . Temperature at which a substance changes into gaseous state is called as “boiling point” and at which a substance change into its solid state i.e., crystal formation is called as “melting point”. In case of water, at normal conditions, it exists in three different phases.
- Liquid :- When the temperature increases from -100°C to 0°C, then it starts melting i.e., becomes liquid or moves towards liquid phase where we can see flowing of water-like materials ! Liquid has higher density than solid & therefore has lower boiling point (i.e., at normal conditions, we can see water coming out of taps as liquid) !
- Liquid to gas :- When the temperature increases from 0°C to 100°C (at normal conditions), its molecules will move faster and faster until they start leaving each other resulting in increasing the volume of a substance very rapidly i.e., it transforms into a gaseous phase known as steam . We can see this only when we boil water because above this temperature, steam is very hot & thus invisible even our eyes can’t capture them ! Gas has lower density than liquids and higher density than solid(s). So, we don’t feel it by touch but if try to capture it by a pipe, then we can see some amount of water flowing out of the pipe because these are gaseous form of water!
For e.g., In case of water, ice has high melting point than liquid and liquid has higher boiling point than gas (steam). This is called as third law- If two different substances have same property at a liquid phase state, they will not have that property in solid phase for e.g., solubility .
When a substance dissolves in another substance is called ‘solubility’ & this other substance is known as solvent . So depending upon the type of interaction between two substances i.e., whether it’s ionic, covalent or a metallic bond, solubility of the substance will be different . For e.g., water is a solvent and sugar & salt are solutes which means that they dissolve in water i.e., when solid dissolves in liquid state to give solution (liquid with dissolved substances). Most of the times we keep materials like sugar, salt etc at our kitchen because these materials have high solubility in water . This property comes very much useful while cleaning purposes also because if we put many such materials in water then it can remove grease from surfaces easily resulting in same cleaning effects!
Mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances without any chemical reaction but still they will behave as a single substance . For e.g., air is mixture of gases(oxygen, nitrogen etc) & earth is mixture of different minerals and rocks . Mixture can be classified in to two types : homogeneous mixtures & heterogeneous mixtures!
- Homogeneous Mixture:- If a whole mixture has same properties like original pure substances then it’s called as homogenous mixture i.e., all parts of the substances are uniformly distributed throughout the composition which results in uniform behavior for e.g., water !
- Heterogeneous Mixture:- If a whole mixture does not have same properties like original pure substances then it’s called as heterogeneous mixture where different particles do not interact with each other in any way so they will behave differently & thus are called as two different substances. For e.g., sand is heterogeneous mixture of minerals, metals, quartz particles etc
When we consider only physical states of a substance but not their composition (composition = pure quantity or molar amount ), then it’s called as colligative properties . There are three types of colligative properties : freezing point depression , boiling point elevation and vapor pressure lowering!
- Freezing Point Depression: If the concentration of solute increases in solvent than its freezing point will decrease . This happens because when the solute is dissolved in water, the energy required for water molecules to separate themselves from each other decreases resulting in decreasing temperature at which water freezes. So, if we add any solute to water then the solution will be very much less dense than pure water resulting in freezing point depression .
- Boiling Point Elevation: If the concentration of a solute increases in solvent , than its boiling point also increases and it goes on increasing as we keep adding more & more of solutes ! The reason for this is that when something dissolves in liquid state, it forms ions with unbalanced charges so these ions have higher mobility which results in increase in temperature at which bubbles can form out of gas phase because they want to move towards regions where other excess ions reside.
- Vapor pressure lowering: If the concentration of a solute increases in solvent , then its vapor pressure will decrease. Since we can’t smell salt or sugar but we can definitely smell water , so it means that other solutes with low vapor pressure are some how reducing water’s vapor pressure and less the concentration of these substances, more will be the vapor pressure of water.
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